The Case For NTD and S2: Prevalence and Protectiveness of Antibodies Towards SARS-CoV-2 Non-RBD Spike Epitopes

The Case For NTD and S2: Prevalence and Protectiveness of Antibodies Towards SARS-CoV-2 Non-RBD Spike Epitopes

Introduction Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, many researchers continue to focus their efforts on the discovery of potent neutralizing antibodies that would prove useful in the design of COVID-19 countermeasures such as vaccines and therapeutics. To date, most vaccines or therapeutics in clinical trials or…

SARS-CoV-2 Variants: An Emerging Landscape of Therapeutic Targets

SARS-CoV-2 Variants: An Emerging Landscape of Therapeutic Targets

In recent months, viral strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected that are unusual in that they have accumulated mutations in the virus’ genetic code that diverges from the wild-type (WT) Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 strain. These viral strains with accumulated genome mutations are known as SARS-CoV-2 variants. As SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to…

IgA Antibody Detection in COVID-19

IgA Antibody Detection in COVID-19

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 [1]. Currently, the United States has become one of the most impacted regions with confirmed cases totaling more than 5.6 million and with more than 175,000 deaths [2]. The…

Cell-Based Therapy for COVID-19: A Secretome to Calm the Storm

Cell-Based Therapy for COVID-19: A Secretome to Calm the Storm

In COVID-19 cases of greatest severity, a defective host immune response appears to play a central role. In particular, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and organ failure that typify a severe disease course are accompanied by elevated levels of IL-2, IL-7, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1-α, and TNF-α [1].…

COVID-19 Research Tools 101

COVID-19 Research Tools 101

Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus. [1] Some infected individuals are asymptomatic while others experience very severe symptoms that can result in death (Figure 1). [2] More specifically, those over 55 years old or have underlying conditions are especially vulnerable to developing…