IgA Antibody Detection in COVID-19

IgA Antibody Detection in COVID-19

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 [1]. Currently, the United States has become one of the most impacted regions with confirmed cases totaling more than 5.6 million and with more than 175,000 deaths [2]. The…

Cell-Based Therapy for COVID-19: A Secretome to Calm the Storm

Cell-Based Therapy for COVID-19: A Secretome to Calm the Storm

In COVID-19 cases of greatest severity, a defective host immune response appears to play a central role. In particular, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and organ failure that typify a severe disease course are accompanied by elevated levels of IL-2, IL-7, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1-α, and TNF-α [1].…

Exosomes: A Source of Protein Biomarkers

Exosomes are 30-150 nm extracellular vesicles that are endocytically released from cells. Exosomes were previously thought to simply exude unnecessary proteins from cells; however, more recent research has highlighted their importance in cell-to-cell communication by transporting biomolecules such as mRNA, microRNA, and protein through the circulatory system. Recipient cells may…