COVID-19 Research Tools 101

COVID-19 Research Tools 101

Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus. [1] Some infected individuals are asymptomatic while others experience very severe symptoms that can result in death (Figure 1). [2] More specifically, those over 55 years old or have underlying conditions are especially vulnerable to developing…

7 Ways to Study Protein Phosphorylation

7 Ways to Study Protein Phosphorylation

Introduction Protein phosphorylation is the most well-studied post translational modification (PTM), in which a phosphoryl group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is covalently attached to a serine (~86%), threonine (~12%), or tyrosine (~2%) by a kinase and removed by a phosphatase (Figure 1). [1] Phosphorylation at other amino acids have also…

Recombinant Proteins in Research

Recombinant Proteins in Research

Introduction Proteins play an integral role in human health. As such, basic, applied, and clinical research aim to understand how protein expression, localization, post translational modifications (PTMs), and interactions regulate homeostasis and disease (see yellow box). Our current understanding of how proteins affect cellular phenotype is based on numerous applications,…

A Comparison of Antibody Arrays and Mass Spectrometry in Protein Profiling and Biomarker Research

A Comparison of Antibody Arrays and Mass Spectrometry in Protein Profiling and Biomarker Research

Highlights Antibody arrays: removal of high abundance proteins is not required, but antibody availability limits protein detection. Mass spectrometry: “hypothesis-free” protein detection is affected by high abundance proteins and peptide ionization. Both high throughput technologies are capable of semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Antibody arrays and mass spectrometry complement each other.…

Support Vector Machine (SVM) Model

Support Vector Machine (SVM) Model

What is it? Support vector machine (SVM) determines the boundaries that best classifies the different groups from each other using a subset of variables (e.g., biomarkers) in multi-dimensional space. The boundary is a hyperplane in which a subset of data points closest to the hyperplane (called support vectors) have the…